####################### N-gram smoothing models ####################### When dealing with n-gram_ models, smoothing refers to the practice of adjusting empirical probability estimates to account for insufficient data. In the descriptions below, we use the notation :math:w^{j}_{i}, :math:i < j, to denote the (j - i)-gram :math:(w_{i}, w_{i+1}, \ldots, w_{j}). .. raw:: html

### Laplace Smoothing

Laplace smoothing_ is the assumption that each n-gram in a corpus occurs exactly one more time than it actually does. .. math:: p(w_i \mid w^{i-1}_{i-n+1}) = \frac{1 + c(w^{i}_{i-n+1})}{|V| \sum_{w_i} c(w^{i}_{i-n+1})} where :math:c(a) denotes the empirical count of the n-gram :math:a in the corpus, and :math:|V| corresponds to the number of unique n-grams in the corpus. .. _Laplace smoothing: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Additive_smoothing **Models** - :class:~numpy_ml.ngram.AdditiveNGram .. raw:: html

Additive/Lidstone smoothing_ is a generalization of Laplace smoothing, where we assume that each n-gram in a corpus occurs k more times than it actually does (where k can be any non-negative value, but typically ranges between [0, 1]): .. math:: p(w_i \mid w^{i-1}_{i-n+1}) = \frac{k + c(w^{i}_{i-n+1})}{k |V| \sum_{w_i} c(w^{i}_{i-n+1})} where :math:c(a) denotes the empirical count of the n-gram :math:a in the corpus, and :math:|V| corresponds to the number of unique n-grams in the corpus. .. _Additive/Lidstone smoothing: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Additive_smoothing **Models** - :class:~numpy_ml.ngram.AdditiveNGram .. raw:: html
Good-Turing smoothing_ is a more sophisticated technique which takes into account the identity of the particular n-gram when deciding the amount of smoothing to apply. It proceeds by allocating a portion of the probability space occupied by n-grams which occur with count r+1 and dividing it among the n-grams which occur with rate r. .. math:: r^* = (r + 1) \frac{g(r + 1)}{g(r)} \\ p(w^{i}_{i-n+1} \mid c(w^{i}_{i-n+1}) = r) = \frac{r^*}{N} where :math:r^* is the adjusted count for an n-gram which occurs r times, g(x) is the number of n-grams in the corpus which occur x times, and N is the total number of n-grams in the corpus. .. _n-gram: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-gram .. _Good-Turing smoothing: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Good%E2%80%93Turing_frequency_estimation **Models** - :class:~numpy_ml.ngram.GoodTuringNGram **References** .. [1] Chen & Goodman (1998). "An empirical study of smoothing techniques for language modeling". *Harvard Computer Science Group Technical Report TR-10-98*. .. [2] Gale & Sampson (1995). "Good-Turing frequency estimation without tears". *Journal of Quantitative Linguistics*, 2(3), 217-237. .. toctree:: :maxdepth: 3 :hidden: numpy_ml.ngram.mle numpy_ml.ngram.additive numpy_ml.ngram.goodturing